Well, for anyone who is considering going on a tour, the first thing to
consider is safety.
In my opinion，I think this question need to be more
specific,differences in terms of what？ Life,culture,thinking,working
style etc. I will give some example about several aspects.
There are a number of ways you can go about analyzing the data in a
But over the years, one particular procedure
has proved its usefulness over and over again.
This method is based on the Harvard Business School’s case analysis
There are five stages in this process.
First, reading the case.
Second, identifying the problem.
Third, researching the issues surrounding the problem
and analyzing the data.
Fourth, generating and evaluating solutions to the problem.
And finally, recommending a solution.
The first step is to read the case you’ve been assigned.
You should first skim the case.
This is a key step, as it enables you to gain familiarity with the
by reading it to get the gist, or broad idea of what the case is
Next, you should go back to determine the critical facts in the case.
This type of active reading helps you to determine critical facts
about the case, such as where it is taking place,
who the main characters are, what the key facts are,
and how the protagonist may have already tried
to deal with the problem in the case.
This type of understanding will allow you to then move on
to the second step, which is identifying the problem at the heart of the
This second step involves separating the facts
stating the problem around which the business case has
been built from the sometimes symptoms of the case.
This can be accomplished by focusing on the end result.
Then working backward towards the root of the problem by asking,
‘Why and what caused this problem?’
This method is referred to as the 5 “Why’s”, as you
would begin with the end result of the case.
For example, an employee has been fired on her first day of the job.
Then you would begin asking, ‘Why this action was taken?’
Using the example of the employee being fired on her first day at
you would ask why, and perhaps come up with the answer
that that employee behaved rudely to a customer.
【澳门威斯尼斯人86829】BEC listen and translation exercise 31。Once you have answered this question, you would ask another
why question related to the answer, such as,
‘Why did the employee behavior rudely?’
Maybe the employee did not know how to behave appropriately.
And why did the employee not know how to behave appropriately?
Well, perhaps the training for new employees
does not include a section on customer service.
【澳门威斯尼斯人86829】BEC listen and translation exercise 31。This process should continue until you have separated
all the inferences, assumptions, or symptoms of the problem.
And have come up with what you feel is the root cause of the problem
The next step is to become familiar with the problem
by conducting your own research and analyzing the data provided in the
to support any hunches you have about the problem.
The type and amount of research you will need to conduct
depends on the content of the case and your own background.
Though, you should always consider the reliability and credibility
of the sources you use in your research.
Once you have a better understanding of the issues surrounding the
you will next need to start looking at the data or evidence from the
to begin investigating what is causing the problem.
This data will either be presented in a non numerical qualitative
or with numerical quantitative data.
When analyzing qualitative data, try to keep in mind a very clear idea
you were trying to discover, or prove, so you’re not distracted.
When analyzing qualitative data, look closely at textual features,
like titles and subtitles, highlighted terms,
synonyms of any key words from your problem statement, and any
images, and exhibits that have been included in the case.
Quantitative or numerical data tends to be given either within the
or in charts or tables in exhibits attached at the end of the case.
Remember, that the purpose behind all this research and analysis
of the qualitative or quantitative data provided in the case
is to help you begin to brainstorm the potential solutions to the
Therefore, you should be evaluating all the data you come across
to see if any of it enables you to suggest
how to solve the problem presented.
Which brings us to the fourth step in this case analysis process,
generating and evaluating solutions to the problem.
The fourth step involves using the information you gained in your
into the issues surrounding the problem and analysis of any evidence
to the problem to begin brainstorming all the feasible ideas you can
with to solve the problem.
It is important that you write down everything
you can think of before discarding the idea.
Once you have a list of potential solutions to the problem,
you will then need to evaluate how suitable each of them
would be until you come up with a preferred solution.
One way of deciding which would be the best solution is to use a tool
called a paired comparison analysis, which
requires you to prioritize the importance of each
of your potential solutions relative to each other.
The final step in this process is to decide upon one solution
to solve the problem.
And to recommend it using a clear action plan.
An action plan provides information on all the tasks
that need to be accomplished in order to carry out the recommended
For example, you would need to articulate
who would need to be involved, what needs to be done,
where it needs to be done, how long each major step would take,
how much money each major step would cost,
and how the solution would benefit the stakeholders in the case.
Analyzing business cases can seem overwhelming at first.
But as you can see, if you approach your reading and analysis
in a structured systematic way, you should
be able to work through the case to understand
【澳门威斯尼斯人86829】BEC listen and translation exercise 31。the problem at the heart of the case.
Then come up with a preferred solution that could help to solve this
A new form of treating grief following the death of a loved one has been
found to be more successful than conventional psychotherapy in some
Although, we have different culture background, from my view, young
people are same all around the world, we cannot differentiate as we have
different physical appearance or the continent we live in. We have same
hobbies, we both like social media, meet new people, watch movies, play
computer games and so on. I like to make foreign friends and you can
share your ideas with them, this is a very happy thing xD.
Individualism versus collectivism looks at two elements.
The first, called ‘individualism’, suggests
individuals are expected to take care of only themselves
and their immediate families.
The second, ‘collectivism’, suggests individuals
can expect their relatives or members of a particular in-group
to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.
A society’s position on this dimension is
reflected in whether people’s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or
According to Hofstede, individualist cultures
assume that any person looks primarily after his or her own interest
and the interest of his or her immediate family (husband, wife, and
Collectivist cultures assume that any person, through birth and possible
events, belongs to one or more tight “in-groups” from which he or she
This morning I’d like to tell you something about the structure of the
university and about some of the requirements of the degree that you’re
about to enter.
1.Individual.Young Chinese will look at himself as part of the
society rather than an individual. Their friends and family have a great
role in their life. In west individuality is considered as a power. In
WestOne’s personal goals and motives are more prioritized over
collective ones. This culture is believed to encourage individuals to be
more ambitious and they use it to drive individuals to succeed. They
also put a focus on being different and making a difference. Chinese
youth, on the other hand, base their decisions on how they will be
perceived by those around them. They will first consider how their
decisions will affect their family, colleagues and friends.
However, when reading theories that attempt to define culture and
cultural behavior, such as Hofstede’s cultural dimensions,
it is important to contextualize how these definitions are framed.
In other words, we need to identify the methods used to collect
and to understand the perspectives of the researchers
and how they form their ideas.
How do the researchers approach their study?
What tools do they use to gather information?
Are those tools appropriate and adequate to gather information
to form a conclusive idea?
And, most importantly, are the ideas presented
in a theory generalizable across different settings or circumstances?
First, let’s talk about the method or tools
for gathering information for Hofstede’s theory.
If you remember, his main method for gathering information
was through questionnaires given to IBM employees working at different
throughout the world.
Some scholars argue that a weakness in Hofstede’s theory
is that he generalizes about the entire national population in each
solely on the basis of analysis of a few questionnaire responses.
Others point out that because culture is not easily defined,
we should ask: Is Hofstede measuring the unmeasurable?
That last question leads us to another point
to consider when referring to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions.
We’ve already identified that culture is difficult to define
because things like values and beliefs can vary and are not
always visible to an observer; and because context and environments
and can influence how an observer perceives and understands a culture.
As I mentioned earlier, some critics point to the fact
that Hofstede’s analysis of the questionnaires
suggests that workers at each IBM office represent
the national culture which they work in.
Critics suggest that this is too simplistic.
One way of looking at this argument is by looking at a statement like
A group of IBM workers in France have a common set of values and
and therefore represent all French culture.
Nancy（USA）:Young Chinese people look up to western culture whereas
young Americans or people from European countries don’t necessarily look
up to Chinese culture.Westerners may find it interesting but I think
their general outlook is influenced by stereotypes and what they see in
mainstream media and pop culture.Though this doesn’t apply to all
western young people, it describes the population’s general outlook and
their views throughout history .
The pragmatic versus normative dimension describes how people in the
as well as today, relate to the fact that so much that happens around us
In societies with a ‘normative orientation’
most people have a strong desire to explain as much as possible.
People in such societies have a strong concern
with establishing the absolute truth, and a need for personal
They exhibit great respect for social conventions and traditions,
a relatively small propensity to save for the future, and a focus
on achieving quick results.
In societies with a ‘pragmatic orientation’,
most people don’t have a need to explain everything,
as they believe that it is impossible to understand fully
the complexity of life.
The challenge is not to know the truth but to live a virtuous life.
In societies with a pragmatic orientation,
people believe that truth depends very much on situation, context, and
They show an ability to accept contradictions, adapt according
to the circumstances, a strong propensity to save and invest,
and thriftiness and perseverance in achieving results.
So to sum up this section, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory
is a framework that is used to assist in distinguishing and comparing
the values among different country cultures.
This is a valuable framework for people like international business
or others involved in an international business setting,
because it can assist in avoiding or resolving potential communication
barriers or misunderstandings.
It’s not only useful for the business context;
researchers, politicians, and educators have also used this framework
as a starting point to help them understand
the differences between cultures.
4.Politeness.Being sensitive to another person’s needs is very
important in Chinese culture and also in youth.It is expected that you
will respect the other person and treat them well.Their needs are met at
each encounter.I think Wset p people are very upfront in their manner of
speaking. This may often cause a lot of misunderstanding or sometimes
even hurt the feelings of some Chinese people especially if they are
very sensitive. People in the West are encouraged to defend their ideas
which may even lead to a confrontation or debate for the purpose of
getting the other person to agree with their way of thinking. Some
Chinese people would simply nod on your opinion even if they don’t
really agree with what you are saying. They do this to respect and honor
Masculinity versus femininity is related to the division
of emotional roles between women and men.
According to Hofstede, the ‘masculinity’ side of this dimension
represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism,
and material rewards for success.
Society at large is more competitive.
Its opposite, ‘femininity’, stands for a preference for cooperation,
modesty, caring for the weak, and quality of life.
Society at large is more consensus-oriented.
People in a culture normally follow its norms, but acceptance of norms
differs in different situations and social conditions.
Dylan(Canada）:The most obvious one to me is that Chinese youth have
a higher level of respect for their parents than the youth of many
western countries,I also suspect that Chinese youth treat romantic
relationships while in their 20s more seriously, while westerners tend
to wait until their 30s.
Here are the differences between masculinity and femininity
provided by Hofstede.
They want to make independent decisions and not be told what to do by
grandparents or uncles or aunts.
Barry(Italy):Chinese youth places high values on the morals of their
people.Marriage is not encouraged until the late twenties.The Western
culture is much more relaxed and some couldeven argue that there needs
to be more moral emphasize.
Some scholars continue to argue for the relevance of his theory
because there have been no significant studies on culture like his.
Other studies have replicated similar findings, adding
some validity to his generalizations, and that Hofstede
has continued to update his data since the 1980s.
Most psychologists are finding that a good exercise program, good
nutrition, decreases the amount of stress, or the effect of stress on
the body or in the mind.
3.Pressure and freedom.Chinese young people face too many pressures
from family and society. Western young people are enjoying their school
time and social activities while Chinese young people are worried about
their future life. Chinese parents put a ton of pressure on young
people’s relationships and tell them when should they get married. They
also told young people what they need to do instead of letting young
people do what they want.
The purpose of this lecture is to initiate critical thinking
about Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, which
has being introduced as a useful framework
for understanding cross-cultural differences for communicative
While Hofstede’s theory could help us understand cultural differences
and develop cultural communication skills to overcome those
it is not the only theory.
Nor does it provide a comprehensive explanation for cultural
and some scholars have argued that it overgeneralizes cultural
So while we think Hofstede is a good start
to assist you with developing cross-cultural understanding,
we still need to reflect on what other scholars have
said about cultural differences, and identify potential problems
in Hofstede’s theory to avoid any possible mistakes, like stereotyping
First, let’s revisit the concept of culture.
Remember, Hofstede defines culture as “The collective programming of the
which distinguishes the members of one human group from another.
Culture, in this sense, includes systems of values;
and values are among the building blocks of a culture.”
We also looked at a definition provided by Melanie Moll in her book,
“The Quintessence of Intercultural Business Communication”.
Her definition is: “Culture is the meaningful way in which people
act and interact in their social contexts with one another.”
There are in fact many other definitions
provided by numerous researchers,
and it would be too difficult to cover them all here.
But as some point out, a key term that appears in many definitions
is the word ‘programming.’
Some researchers believe that culture is not easily acquired;
it involves a slow process of growing into a society.
This includes: learning values, partaking of rituals, modeling against
and understanding symbols.
Traditionally, the American family has been a nuclear family, consisting
of a husband, wife and their children, and living in a house or
4.Traditional culture.The Chinese youth recognize their traditions
while West is more declined towards modernization. For instance Once a
year, all members of a family visit the gravesites of each ancestor and
pay their respects.Honoring ancestors is very important in Chinese
culture.This is in direct contrast to mostwestern youth who rarely know
where the majority of their ancestors are laid to rest.
Next, let’s take a look at the dimension called ‘uncertainty
According to Hofstede, this describes that extent
to which people within a culture are made
nervous by situations which they perceive as unstructured, unclear,
or unpredictable situations which they therefore try to avoid
[by] maintaining strict codes of behavior and a belief in absolute
According to Hofstede, uncertainty avoidance
should not be considered the same as risk avoidance.
This dimension considers a society’s tolerance for ambiguity.
It provides a framework for understanding
how people might feel uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured
Here are the differences between weak uncertainty avoidance
and strong uncertainty avoidance provided by Hofstede.
India’s textile exports to Western countries have surged following the
abolition of global quotas earlier this year.
2.Reputationof the individual is very important in China.If an
action will humiliate someone or ruin a reputation, it is avoided.In
West, reputations come and go overnight and in the end usually does not
What is problematic about this statement?
Well, first, I ask myself: Can a group of workers in one office
provide information on the entire cultural system of a country?
I might then ask, who are these workers?
Are they managers? Computer programmers? Assistants?
How long have they worked at the company?
What part of France do they come from?
Have any of the employees ever worked in another culture or another
There are many elements one could question [about] this statement.
Researcher Dr. Brendan McSweeney challenges Hofstede’s theory
in his paper: “Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences
and their consequences:: A triumph of faith – a failure of analysis”.
He argues that Hofstede’s theory is based on generalizations
that do not fit neatly into every context.
For example, he argues that many nations often
have different ethnic groups which are not
typical of the national cultural identity.
Another point to consider is how national identity and culture
One might ask, Do nations have a culture?
Is there a national culture?
What about national borders?
Does a culture end at a nation’s border?
Some critics argue that nations are not the proper unit of analysis,
as cultures are not necessarily bounded by borders.
So when reviewing Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions,
one should consider the method and tools used for collecting
how that information is analyzed, and whether findings from the
can be used to create a theory that explains something.
There should then be careful consideration
of whether a theory overgeneralizes.
That said, Hofstede’s research should not be ignored.
His findings add value to our understanding
of cultural behavior and, for the purpose of this course,
By reviewing and critically reflecting on his theory on cultural
you can use the knowledge to understand the following:
I have many foreign friends in my school and they come from different
countries. Helping people is my couple of tea. Sometimes I will help
them practicing Chinese and we would hang out together and I would to be
their guide.It is not easy to explain that people from different
countries hold various point of views for this issue. Therefore, I have
inquired the opinion from some international students. As you can see
the following is the list of the questioners collection:
Hall’s Iceberg Model of Culture suggests people only
see a few elements or behaviors of a particular culture,
and the major essence of any culture is hidden from the general public.
Cameron(New Zealand）:Chinese people are maybe more obedient and
less independent,Because they live with family more and are used to
obeying their rules,But in western counties people usually move out
younger and live on their own after 18.
Indulgence versus restraint is related to the gratification versus
of basic human desires related to enjoying life.
‘Indulgence’ stands for a society that allows relatively free
of basic and natural human drives related
to enjoying life and having fun.
‘Restraint’ stands for a society that suppresses gratification of
and regulates it by means of strict social norms.
Here are the differences between indulgence and restraint
provided by Hofstede.
What is important is not to try to ride too far, too quickly. Take your
time, and if you feel tired, stop and rest.
Naveed(UK）：The biggest difference the youth of China and West is
the value. Chinese people are very rigid in their values while in west
values are not taken very seriously.
Here are the differences between individualism and collectivism
provided by Hofstede.